According to the report, disease burden due to air pollution remained high in India between 1990 and 2016, as it caused non-communicable and infectious diseases such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and infections.
In 2016, three of the five leading causes of disease burden in India were non-communicable, with ischaemic heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as the top two causes.
In contrast, malnutrition continues to be a curse in some of the poorer states, also called the Empowered Action Group (EAG), like Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Odisha, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Assam.
The first state-level disease burden and risk factors estimates to improve health and planning for every state in India is a collaborative work by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), the Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI), the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) and the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
The study used multiple data sources to map State-level disease burden from 333 disease conditions and injuries, and 83 risk factors for each State from 1990 to 2016. The report said it contributed 5% to the total disease burden.
However, mortality due to communicable, maternal, neonatal and nutritional diseases (CMNNDs) declined from 61 per cent in 1990 to 33 per cent in 2016, it said.
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In the worst affected states, over 2,750 cases of deaths or severe illnesses such as non-communicable diseases, chronic respiratory diseases and lower respiratory infections, per lakh pollution were reported a year ago, the study says.
Life expectancy at birth improved in India from 59.7 years in 1990 to 70.3 years in 2016 for females, and from 58.3 years to 66.9 years for males. He said, this report, along with the technical scientific paper and the open-access visualization tool that are also released today, together provide systematic insights in to the health status of each state and the health inequalities between the states of India. "There were, however, continuing inequalities between states, with a range of 66.8 years in Uttar Pradesh to 78.7 years in Kerala for females, and 63.6 years in Assam to 73.8 years in Kerala for males in 2016", the report said.
"The highest proportion of disease burden due to injuries is in young adults".
Air pollution, which was the third largest risk factor in the country in 1990, moved to the second position in the year 2016.
"India is committed to strengthening health data surveillance and health systems in the country. Discussion with policy makers suggests that these findings will be useful for planning of State health budgets, prioritisation of interventions relevant to each State, informing the government's Health Assurance Mission, monitoring of health-related Sustainable Development Goals targets in each State, assessing impact of large-scale interventions based on time trends of disease burden, and forecasting population health under various scenarios in each State", Dr. Dandona said.
The first ever comprehensive estimate on state-wise burden of diseases brings out the wide variation in disease profile, burden and risk factors of the various states, many of them bigger than most countries in the world.
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