Roland-Jones had spearheaded the dismissal of South Africa for 175 on the third morning of the 100th Oval test to give England a 178-run first innings lead before another newcomer Tom Westley then helped hammer home the advantage.
In what has been a rain-affected Test match, South were bundled out for 175 in response to England's 353.
England boast a lead of 252 against South Africa with nine wickets left in hand after inclement weather conditions at The Oval forced day three of the third Test to be significantly shortened.
South Africa resumed on 126-8, some 227 runs in arrears, and avoided the follow-on thanks to a 47-run stand between Morne Morkel (17) and Temba Bavuma (52), who reached his eighth Test fifty off 111 balls.
With South Africa eight down on the second evening, England had the chance to conclude their innings because Philander was in hospital with a stomach complaint.
Anderson picked three wickets while Stuart Broad and Ben Stokes chipped in with a wicket each.
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Former England captain Alec Stewart: "Just looking at the forecast for tomorrow and Monday, there's a fair bit of sun about and therefore it will be a good place to bat".
The best batting of the day came from Jonny Bairstow who was able to accelerate when England needed it to make 63 off 58 balls as South Africa were again second best after their emphatic victory at Trent Bridge.
Morris and Keshav Maharaj took two wickets each.
Not even being in the England cricket team prevents you from experiencing travel problems.
Left-hander Jennings, who again risked bringing the slips into play by several times defending with an angled bat, was on 33 when given out lbw to fast bowler Kagiso Rabada.
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